Normal pressure hydrocephalus

Further form of dementia

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH): Causes, Symptoms, Progression and Treatment

Everything you need to know about Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

Normaldruck-Hydrocephalus - Ursachen, Symptome, Verlauf und Behandlung

Causes of Normal pressure hydrocephalus:

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the brain, leading to dilation in the ventricles of the brain. Unlike other forms of hydrocephalus, there is no significant increase in intracranial pressure in NPH, which is why the term “normal pressure” is used. The exact causes of NPH are still unknown, but it is thought to be due to a disturbance in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid or impaired resorption. Primary risk factors may include previous cerebral hemorrhage, head injury, central nervous system infections, or tumors in the brain. Secondary NPH can occur as a result of other neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.

Symptoms of Normal pressure hydrocephalus:

The symptoms of Normal pressure hydrocephalus usually include a combination of motor and cognitive problems, as well as incontinence. Motor symptoms include gait disturbances, balance problems and frequent stumbling or falling. Cognitive symptoms may include memory loss, slowed thinking and impaired attention. Urinary symptoms such as sudden urge to urinate, urinary incontinence or difficulty urinating are also common. Symptoms can develop slowly and are often mistaken for typical signs of ageing, which can lead to a delayed diagnosis.

Progression of Normal pressure hydrocephalus:

The progression of Normal pressure hydrocephalus is often gradual and can take months to years to fully develop. The symptoms can progress slowly and are often mild at the beginning. Over time, however, they can increase in intensity and have a significant impact on quality of life. Without treatment, NPH can lead to deterioration in neurological function and cause irreversible damage.

Treatment of Normal pressure hydrocephalus:

The treatment of Normal pressure hydrocephalus usually involves relieving the excess cerebrospinal fluid through surgery to implant a shunt. A shunt is a small tube that drains excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain and drains it to another area of the body, usually the abdomen or heart, where it is reabsorbed by the body. This surgery can help to relieve symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Physiotherapy and occupational therapy can also be helpful to improve motor function and maintain independence in daily life.


Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid in the brain leads to increased pressure. Symptoms include a combination of motor, cognitive and urinary problems and can progress slowly. Treatment usually involves surgery to implant a shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent irreversible damage and improve the quality of life of those affected.

You can find an overview of other forms of dementia here:

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